Monday, February 19, 2018

Internet filtering at Winnipeg Public Library –dated November 2000

What is a filter?
A filter is software which controls or limits access to Internet content. Winnipeg Public Library has chosen a filter which blocks chat on all workstations. The Library also blocks access on children’s workstations in subject categories such as hate literature, extreme violence, and explicit sexual content. A filter is not perfect. There is a 5 to 10% chance that the filter might not block material it was set up to filter. 

What type of Internet access does Winnipeg Public Library provide?
All Children’s Internet workstations use filtering software. Some Adult Services Internet workstations also are filtered (but most provide unfiltered Internet access). Children can also use unfiltered Adult Internet workstations. Parents should discuss appropriate Internet use with their children. It is the responsibility of parents to let their children know which workstations they should use at the Library. 

For more information on filters, look at the N2H2 Resource Bar at the bottom of the screen of any filtered workstation.

If I am on a Filtered Workstation what do I do if I have a concern about a site?
You can email N2H2 and ask for a review of the site. (Library staff are not involved in this review.) Just clock on the “Request Review” on the N2H2 Resource Bar at the bottom of the screen and complete the information boxes. 

Where can I look on the Internet for good sites for our family? 
The Winnipeg Public Library’s Web site at is a good place to start. In the Kids and Teens sections there are lots of selected sites. In the Parents section there are sites dedicated to the whole family.

Monday, February 12, 2018

Monday, February 5, 2018

Copyright fundamentals (and Trench warfare)

Copyright basics
  • By definition, it is the right to copy a creation
  • Must be fixed and it must be original 
  • Exists in every original literary, dramatic, musical and artist work, including print and electronic books, articles, illustrations, photos, songs, computer software, CD-ROMs, videos, digital images
  • Cannot copyright ideas, information, facts, history or news events 
  • Can copyright the expression of ideas, facts, etc. 
  • Copyright generally lasts 50 years after the death of the author and then it falls into the public domain
  • Regardless of origin, copyrighted material used in Canada is covered by Canadian Copyright Law
  • Collectives have been created so that users can acquire, for a fee, further rights
  • Creators’ rights include economics and moral
  • Users’ rights are very limited 

Rights of creators under the Canadian Copyright Act 
  • To reproduce a work 
  • To publish a work 
  • To perform a work in public
  • To publish a translation of the work 
  • To communicate a work publicly via telecommunications 
  • To adapt a work 
  • To rent a computer program and sound recording
  • To authorize other to do such acts 

Rights of users under the Canadian Copyright Act
  • Insubstantial use 
  • Fair dealing
  • Exceptions 
General exceptions
1) Insubstantial use (existed since passage of the 1924 Act) 
  • If a creator controls a substantial part of his/her work, then a user has the right of insubstantial use Problem is that there is no definition of “insubstantial use,” but again international case law suggests 1-2% 
2) Research of private study, criticism or review, reporting or news summary (in force September 1, 1997) 
  • Fair dealing for the purpose of research and private study, provided basic bibliographic information is provided 
  • Fair dealing for the purpose of criticism or review, reporting or news summary, provided the source is provided
    • Problem is that fair dealing is not defined in the Copyright Act; nor does it refer specifically to teaching 
    • Problem is that there are few reasonable examples of case law; however, based on international case law, “fair” seems to mean approximately 2% 
    • Don’t confuse “fair dealing” with the American “fair use,” the latter being far more liberal 

Your use of overheads, opaque projections, black boards, white boards 
A) Copyright exception
  1. Reproduction for instruction
    • Manual reproduction (e.g. handwritten) onto white board, black board, flip charts and overheads
    • Make a copy of an image to project using an overhead projector or other device (e.g. opaque projector, projection unit)
Computer programs 
Permitted acts. 30.6 It is not an infringement of copyright in a computer program for a person who owns a copy of the computer program that is authorized by the owner of the copyright to 

(a) make a single reproduction of the copy by adapting, modifying or converting the computer program or translating it into another computer language if the person proves that the reproduced copy is

(i) essential for the compatibility of the computer program with a particular computer
(ii) solely for the person’s own use
(iii) destroyed immediately after the person ceases to be the owner of the copy, or;
(b) make a single reproduction for backup purposes of the copy or of a reproduced copy referred to in paragraph (a) if the person proves that the reproduction for backup purposes is destroyed immediately when the person ceases to be the owner of the copy of the computer program.

1997, c. 24, s. 18 

Exceptions for off-air taping and performance of television and radio programs
Copying off-air of news and news commentary programs

  • Copy at the time of communication to the public via telecommunications a news or news commentary program, not a documentary or feature film, for a period of one year after which you must either erase the program or purchase 
  • Must complete a record keeping form created by the Canadian Copyright Board
  • A new collective – the ERCC – has been created to collect your money
  • If you continue to have the program beyond one year, then you must pay an approved tariff 
Copying for the purposes of evaluating 
  • Copy at the time of communication to the public via telecommunications any program (excluding news and news commentary programs) and evaluate for a period of up to 30 days, before destroying or purchasing (i.e. you cannot show these programs in a classroom) 
  • Must complete a record keeping form 
  • If you continue to have the program beyond 30 days, then you must pay an approved tariff 
Guidelines for Distinguishing Between News Programs, News Commentary Programs, and Documentaries
No royalty is payable for taping a single copy of a news program or news commentary program provided that that copy is destroyed within one year after the making of such copy. This royalty exception does not apply to “other” programs, such as documentaries and feature films. 

To determine whether a royalty is payable, educators may refer to the following guidelines, which are intended to assist in distinguishing between the three categories of program. The initial guidelines were developed in cooperation with the ERCC and representatives of elementary, secondary, and postsecondary educational institutions. This list has been updated by Manitoba Education, Citizenship, and Youth to reflect the current situation.

  1. A news program is a program reporting on local, regional, national, and international events as they happen, and includes weather reports, sportscasts, community news, and other related features or segments contained within the news program. Examples are The National (the first half-hour only), Ontario Ce Soir, BBC World Report, Le Téléjournal.
  2. A news commentary program is a program containing discussions, explanations, analysis, observations or interpretations of the news and having a preponderance of the following elements: “talking head(s)”; minimal editing; minimal “shelf life” in its original form; and, if in interview or panel discussion format, unscripted responses. Examples are As It Happens, Studio 2, The Editors, Larry King Live, Le Point.
  3. Other programs are programs that are not news or news commentary programming. Feature films and documentaries are examples of other programs. A documentary is a socially relevant program with a creative vision and/or viewpoint and with a preponderance of the following elements: significant research and preparation; pre-scripting; significant editing; and significant “shelf life.” Examples are: Life & Times, Venture, Marketplace, The Nature of Things, Rex Murphy, Les affaires et la vie, D’un soleil a l’autre.

Moral rights under the Canadian Copyright Act
Special rights designed to protect the author’s personality or reputation 

  • Three types: 
  • Moral rights, unlike economic rights, cannot be assigned 
  • Moral rights can be waived
  • Nothing in the act to prevent licensing or moral rights 
Some copyright collectives in Canada 
  • Access Copyright (formerly Cancopy)
  • Audio Cine Films 
  • Canadian Musical Reproduction Rights Agency Limited (CMRRA) 
  • Canadian Private Copying Collective (CPCC) 
  • Society of Composers, Authors, and Music Producers of Canada (SOCAN) 
  • Société québécoise de gestion collective des droits de reproduction (COPIBEC) 
  • Visual Education Canada 
Pan Canadian Schools/CanCopy Licence Agreement 1999-2004
As Extended August 26, 2004 
(Until the Copyright Board rules on the tariff in 2006) 
Authorized purposes
(c) “Authorized purposes” means copying for any not-for-profit purpose within or in support of the mandate of the educational institution in Canada, including:

(i) Educational (including testing and examination activities), professional, research, archival, administrative and recreational activities; 
(ii) Communication with and providing information to parents, school advisory/parent council and other members of the community; 
(iii) Copying related to the production of teacher implementation documents, correspondence school and distance learning courses, curriculum documents, workshop packages, provincial examinations and all other similar copying activity, and 
(iv) Making a reasonable number of copies for reference in or a loan by libraries; 
Permitted copying
  5.1 Permitted Copying: This Agreement Authorizes Copying of either ten percent (10%) of a Published Work, or any of the following parts of a Published Work, whichever is greater: 
(a) an entire single short story, play, essay, article or poem from a book or periodical issue (including a set of conference proceedings) containing other works; 
(b) an entire newspaper article or page; 
(c) an entire entry from an encyclopedia, dictionary, annotated bibliography or similar reference work; 
(d) an entire reproduction of an artistic work (including drawings, paintings, prints, photographs and works of a sculpture, architecture or artistic craftsmanship) from a book or periodical issue containing other works; and 
(e) an entire chapter which is twenty percent (20%) or less of a book. 
Multiple copies 
5.13 Multiple copies: Except where otherwise stated, this Licence authorizes the making of: 
(a) the number of copies which is sufficient to permit each student to have one Copy only for his or her personal study and each teacher to have two Copies; 
(b) the number of copies required for administrative purposes, including communication of information to parents and to the community; and 
(c) a reasonable number of Copies for reference in or loan by Libraries.
Proper citation 
5.11 Notice on Copies: The Licensees shall notify their respective employees and agents that, in accordance with good bibliographic practice, Copies of Published Works shall include, on at least one page, a credit to the author, artist or illustrator, and to the source. 
e.g. John Tooth Looking for Manitoba Government Publications, per the Pan Canadian Copyright Agreement 
e.g. John Tooth “Victory for Users,” Macleans, per the Pan Canadian Copyright Agreement 
Society of Composers, Authors, and Music Publishers of Canada (SOCAN)
  • Music used in classrooms covered by an exception in the Canadian Copyright Act 
  • Music used for “extracurricular” activities is not covered by the Act 
  • SOCAN Letters to school divisions 
    • Music at lunch, recess, at games, at dances
    • License .25/student/year 
Educational Rights Collective of Canada (ERCC)
  • Collective designed to collect revenue from educational institutions for off air taping of TV and radio programs 
  • Debate on the reporting of Cable in the Classroom programs continues (law states you do; CITC states you don’t) 
  • Reporting form can be sent electronically to the ERCC 
  • Viability of the ERCC is still in doubt 
  • Reporting dates: January 31, May 31, September 30 
  • Public Broadcasting in the US 

ERCC – Tariff 

Video and radio programs
  • Home use versus public performances 
  • Hard copy versus duplication rights
  • Canadian Copyright Act exceptions: 
    • Taping of “news and news commentary” programs (one year’s free use in the classroom)
    • Taping of “other” programs (30 day evaluation only) 
  • Cable in the Classroom
    • Copyright cleared programs
  • Prairie Public Television 
  • IRU Catalogue 
    • video programs ($15.00/60 minute tape) 

Where we are in the copyright world generally : (Schools Agreement) 
  • Pan Canadian Schools/Cancopy Copyright License Agreement, 1999-2004
    • The 1999-2004 Agreement was extended on August 26, 2004
    • Agreement was to continue under the same terms and conditions until sometime in 2006 when the Copyright Board will rule on Access Copyright’s proposed tariff of $12.00/per full time student for the period 2005-2009 and on  retroactivity  to August 31, 2004 
    • CMEC Copyright Consortium has hired lawyers to represent Canadian public schools as “objectors” to the proposed tariff and to  retroactivity 
    • There was to be a scheduled joint CMEC/Access survey across Canada of photocopying in schools likely in the 2005 calendar year 
    • The survey was likely to involve some 110 schools in Manitoba and 6 school boards 
    • The survey was to be 10 consecutive school days and Access Copyright photocopier observers was to be present 
    • New Exclusions List for 2004/05, which had been distributed to schools and school board offices 
    • New version of the booklet “Copyright Matters!” 2005: a physical copy was to be sent to each teacher in Manitoba during February 2005 and it was also available electronically on the IRU Copyright web site 

Where are we in the Copyright World (Legal cases) 
  • CCH v. The Law Society of Upper Canada (legal publishers case)
    • The making and transmittal of copies of judicial copyrighted material by library users and library staff was within the intent of fair dealing
    • Balanced approach to copyright by the Supreme Court of Canada
  • Online Music Case (Tariff 22 decision) 
    • Downloading of music for private use and sharing via computer did not constitute copyright infringement
    • Balanced approach to copyright by the Supreme Court of Canada 
  • Privacy Interests 
    • Federal court rules that music recording industry had not presented a sufficient case to warrant invasion of privacy interests of individual Canadians (e.g. to force Internet providers to reveal the music downloading habits of some 29 million Canadians)
  • Canadian Heritage “Interim Report on Copyright Reform: Report of the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage” (May 2004)
    • Heritage Committee was going to recommend to Cabinet that there be an amendment to the Copyright Act permitting the collective licencing of Internet materials used for educational purposes (e.g. you will have to pay to use the Internet for educational purposes, or try off the Internet) 
    • On February 16th, at a meeting between CMEC Copyright Committee and the Minister of Canadian Heritage, The Honourable Liza Frulla indicated that the copyright legislation to be addressed in June 2005 will not include the educational use of the Internet 
    • o Philosophy is: collectives first; exemptions unnecessary 
    • o Internet address: 
CMEC Position 
Educational Use of the Internet 
Amend the Copyright Act such that an educational institution or a person acting under its authority, including a student, may do the acts listed below in relation to all or part of a work or other subject-matter that has been made publicly available on a communication network, provided the act is done in a place where a student is participating in a program of learning under the authority of an educational institution, is done for educational or training purposes, and it not for profit, and provided that the source is mentioned giving the names of the authors, performer, maker, or broadcaster if provided in the source:
(a) use a computer for reproduction, including making multiple reproductions for use in the course for instruction;

(b) perform in public before an audience consisting of primarily students of the educational institution, instructors acting under the authority of the educational institution, or any person who is directly responsible for setting curriculum for the educational institution; and

(c) communicate to the public by telecommunication to or from a place where a person is participating in a program of learning under the authority of an educational institution. 
Directions for a more user-friendly Copyright Act
1. Position of the CMEC, CTF, CSBA:
  • Since the majority of the material on the Internet is created by authors who are not interested in asserting their copyright and have no expectation of profit, these materials are therefore “publicly available,” that is, they are intended to be used without cost 
  • CMEC proposes to the federal government that there be an expansion of the “fair dealing” exemption to cover the use of “publicly available” material copied from the Internet for educational purposes; this would be followed by a licensing scheme for non-publicly available material 
  • This amendment to the Copyright Act is known as the “Educational Use of Internet”
  • Philosophy is: Exemptions first, Collectives second 
  • Thus, the “fair dealing” defense would also include education and teaching purposes, in addition to research or private study, review or news reporting 
  • The exception would permit students and teachers in day-to-day instruction to copy, perform and exchange copyrighted materials made publicly available on the Internet 
2. Why does education need an exemption? 
  • Obtaining copyright clearance for day-to-day instruction is not possible or practical 
  • Blanket licensing through a collective of “publicly available” material on the Internet is not likely
  • Students and teachers need to be able to use legally (without infringing copyright) the material they find on the Internet if they are to develop the skills needed to participate in a global knowledge economy
  • Students required to acknowledge source 
    • Respect for intellectual property
  • Students and teachers often break copyright law when they use the Internet
  • Copying an image for a school project is an infringement of copyright
  • Copying text to study later is an infringement of copyright
  • Forwarding an email to a student or teacher is an infringement of copyright 

For further information on Copyright in Canada: 

  • Wanda Noel. (1999). Copyright Guide for Canadian Libraries. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, $44.95, ISBN: 0-88802-294-8. 
  • John Tooth. “CLA Copyright Information Web Site,” Canadian Library Association,
  • Lesley Ellen Harris. (2001). Canadian Copyright Law 3rd Edition, Toronto: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 007-560-369-1.
  • Lesley Ellen Harris. (1998). Digital Property: Currency of the 21st Century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. ISBN: 0-07-552864-0.
  • Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (2012) Copyright Matters!: Some key questions and answers for Teachers. Toronto: CMEC. (Bilingual)
  • Wanda Noel. (1996). Copy right! (videocassette) and Teacher’s Guide (1996) For Grades 5-S1. Available for loan or duplication from the Instructional Resources Unit, Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth. For Loan #0926, Duplication VT-0362, $12.00

Monday, January 29, 2018

Case study

1. Read the scenario

2. As a group, discuss possible solutions to the scenario as the person designated. Pick a reporter to write down these ideas for your group. Write down the key points on a flip chart sheet.

3. When the large group gets back together, the reporter will present your group’s solutions to the larger group.

Tom is setting up the meeting room for the next group when he is paged to the front desk. As he approaches the desk, he spots a very angry customer, waving sheets of paper at the circulation staffer at the front desk.

“I pay taxes and this is what I get – a rotten copy machine that crumpled these sheets of paper after taking all my quarters! Who fixes these machines? I’ve been waiting at least 15 minutes!”

The circulation staffer gestures to Tom and tells the customer that Tom will be able to help him. Tom takes a deep breath, smiles at the customer and says, “I’m sorry you’ve been having a problem with the copy machine. Sometimes they can be temperamental. Let’s go over the machine you used and see what I can do.”

The customer huffs and puffs, but does walk with Tom to the copy machine, saying “I expect to get my money back for these lousy copies! You should have better copiers in your library!” Tom says, “I’d like to ask your help for just a minute. Would you explain to me exactly what you did when you used the machine that crumpled these pages?”

The customer eagerly explains every step he took while Tom listens and nods his head. When the story is finished, Tom asks the customer if he noticed any red light blinking on the copy machine. “No! I don’t have time to notice lights on any machine!” Tom explains that he thinks the copier malfunctioned and that the blinking red light might have been the signal. He tells the customer that he thinks he can quickly fix the machine. “Do you have time to wait for the fix? Then you can make some correct copies.” The customer says, “Well, I only have a little time. But I’ll wait if you can really fix it!”

Tom goes to work on the machine and makes several adjustments. As he works he talks with the customer about machines and how he likes to tinker with them. Once he finishes the adjustment, Tom asks the customer to make some new copies at no charge. He asks, “Are these new copies okay with you?”

The customer nods his head. Tom asks, “Now, does this solve your copy problem?” The customer nods his head. Tom says, “Is there anything else you need today?” The customer says, “No, I really needed you to fix this machine because I didn’t want to drive down the copy center at the shopping mall. I only had a short time to copy these. Bye!” The customer hurries away and Tom takes the crumpled papers and tosses them in the trash.

1. What was the first thing Tom did to help diffuse the angry customer? What were other methods Tom used to calm the customer?

The first thing Tom did was to apologise to the angry customer and to assume that the problem was with the temperamental photocopier, not the customer. Tom listened and nodded his while the customer explained what he had done. Tom explained what he thought was the problem and while he managed to fix the photocopier, engaged the customer in a conversation. Tom provided the photocopied papers free of charge and asks if they met the customer’s satisfaction. He asked if there was anything else he could help with before the customer left.

2. How did Tom find out the exact problem? Identify steps he took with the customer.

Tom found out the exact problem when he asked if the customer had noticed a red blinking light on the copy machine. The customer hadn’t noticed it, so Tom had to look for it before he was able to fix the problem. When Tom asked if there was anything else he could help the customer with, he found that the customer had only had a short time to photocopy the papers and hadn’t wanted to drive to the copy center at the shopping mall.

3. At the conclusion of the scenario, was the customer satisfied with the result? How do you know?

We assume the customer was satisfied with the result because Tom didn’t charge him for them and he nodded his head when Tom asked him if his problem was solved.

4. How could Tom have received some recognition for his transition with the customer?

The customer could have thanked Tom for fixing the photocopier and giving him free copies.

Monday, January 22, 2018

Customer service self-assessment

Please answer each question by checking the appropriate response.

Do you…
Frequently Sometimes Never
1. Project an open, positive, friendly
attitude toward every individual?

2. Respond to complaints in a courteous
and sympathetic manner?

3. Use effective and attentive listening

4. Follow the transaction through until
the customer is satisfied?

5.Apologize even when it's not your

6. Provide timely responses to

7. Provide assistance without being

8. Respond positively - what can you
do, not what you cannot do?

9. Speak clearly at all times?

10. Show you are courteous? Say "Please"
and "Thank you"?

11. Maintain a non-judgemental attitude
toward customer's questions?

12. Communicate on the level of the

13. Acknowledge others for providing
good customer service?

Monday, January 15, 2018

Customer service sample scenarios

1. You are serving someone in person and the phone rings. What do you do?
Should probably excuse yourself briefly from serving the person you’re already serving, apologise for the interruption and answer the phone and find out briefly what the caller requires. If the caller needs to be dispatched through to another library worker, do so. If you need to deal with them directly, ask them to wait briefly while you deal with the original patron waiting for your services, before returning to the phone call and dealing with it appropriately.

2. You are on the phone and someone comes to the desk. What do you do?
Acknowledge the library patron with a nod or smile, and try to finish the call. If the call is going to take some time, interrupt the caller and place them briefly on hold, before apologising to the library patron and finding out what their business is. It could be something simple and quick that they need that could get done before returning to the call.

3. You approach a customer service desk in a department store and two clerks are talking to one another. How do you feel? What would you like them to do?
Most people like to be acknowledged when they’re in a store and to feel that they’re at the centre of the clerk’s attention. Seeing two clerks talk suggests that they’re not concerned about business. Understandably when there is a brief period of ‘downtime’ general chit chat is expected to occur, but in general for most of the day, this shouldn’t be one of the main priorities someone has. Therefore, clerks should always be aware of what is going on around them, and if they need to have their conversation interrupted to make business, that should be the case.

4. You have tried to help an angry customer, but you feel that you have not completely addressed his or her concerns. What do you do?
Ask them if there is anything else that you can help them with. Ask them if they would be willing to submit feedback – anonymously if necessary – on how they feel that you have performed, or would have liked you to perform. If you feel that you’re not the appropriate person to deal with their concerns, ask them if they would like to talk to your supervisor. If the supervisor is available, introduce them. If they are busy, ask for the customer’s contact details and ask if it’s convenient to be contacted to discuss the situation further.

5. Someone has asked you to “bend the rules” in his/her favour. What is your first response?
No one should have the rules bent to their favour. If one person does, they could either expect the rules to be bent for them in the future, when they would like them to be, or all the time, or even tell other people, and therefore numerous people come to the library expecting rules to be bent in their favour. Therefore it’s necessary to abide to the rules as most as possible, with exceptions in special cases. There can sometimes be unfortunate circumstances that require the rules to be bent, and these circumstances need to be kept an eye on.

Monday, January 8, 2018

Customer service

What is customer service?
  • Staff interacting positively and delivering the product the customer expects. 
Who are our customers?
  • Customers will depend on the type of library. 
    • School: Teachers, students 
    • Public: General public, parents, adults, children, etc.
    • College: Students, lecturers
    • Special: Specific individuals who would benefit from the library
Three principles of good customer service
  • Listen and act
  • Show positive behaviour 
  • Acknowledge good customer services 
Show positive behaviour 
  • Approachable
  • Attentive
  • Helpful 
  • Considerate
  • Treat others how you wish to be treated 
  • Open body language
  • Eye contact
  • Comfortable relaxed tone 
  • Full attention 
  • Listen without interrupting 
  • Ask questions  
What makes a good listener? 
  • Maintains eye contact
  • Leans towards the customer 
  • Smiles appropriately
  • Ignores (meaningless) distractions 
  • Gives total concentration 
  • Uses encouraging sounds or motions 
    • “Uh, huh”
    • “I see” 
    • “All right” 
    • Nods head 
  • Restates customer’s request 
  • Clarifies customer’s request 
  • Does not interrupt customer
  • Does not finish customer’s sentence 
  • Gives accurate information 
  • Responding positively
  • Checking understanding 
  • Respectful
  • Patient
  • Treat all customers as individuals 
  • Be sure to mention what was done right