Monday, February 21, 2011

Collection development policies

Library workers may not have to develop a policy if there is one in existence in their library. They may be involved in tweaking one though.
Written or unwritten?
  • Reasons for not writing
    o Change in focus from ownership to access to
    * Give reasons
    o Time consuming
    * Hard to maintain with ever-changing world
  • Reasons for writing
    o rationalization for choices
    * why do you require those materials?
    o staff changes
    * have documentation to explain how and why something is done
  • Guides all activities related to planning, budgeting, selecting and acquiring library materials
  • Describes why a collection exists and what the collection will contain
Uses of a collection development policy
  • Informs everyone about the nature and scope of the collection
  • Informs everyone of the collecting priorities
    o what areas need to be supported?
  • Forces thinking about organizational priorities’ for the collection
    o think of the library first
  • Generates some degree of commitment to meeting the organizational goals
    o says why are you there, what you are doing, and how you are doing it
  • Sets standards for inclusion and exclusion
  • Reduces the influence of a single selector as well as personal biases
  • Provides a training and orientation tool for new staff
    o use as a reminder, work consistencies
  • Helps insure a degree of consistency over time
  • Guides staff in handling complaints
    o respect policy, value concern
  • Aids in weeding and evaluating the collection
  • Aids in rationalizing budget allocations
  • Provides a public relation document
  • Provides a means of assessing overall performance of the collection development program
  • Provides outsiders with information about the purpose of collection development (an accountability tool)
G. Edward Evans. Developing Library and Information Center Collections, 3rd ed., (Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1995, 80)

Elements within a collection development policy
  • Introduction
    o or overview, purpose
  • General collection management and development policies
    o Who is legally responsible? Will needs be met? How will they be met?
  • Detailed analysis of subjects collections
    o What materials will be collected?
  • Detailed analysis of special collections
  • Collection levels and language codes
    o What level/language will you collect in?
  • Indexes
    o Find out what is in collection
  • Miscellaneous items
    o Certain statement of items
Detailed analysis of subject collections
  • Conspectus approach
    Mainly university. Works well. Might work well in a school library, definitely would in another academic library. Don’t buy ‘personal collections”
    o Standard breakdowns of classification scheme
    o Columns indicating collection strength, current collection intensity, desired collection intensity and languages covered
  • Narrative statement approach
    o Broad subject headings and statements outlining collection development policies
Collection levels
  • 0 = Out of scope
  • 1 = Minimal level
  • 2 = Basic level
  • 3 = Study or instructional support level
  • 4 = Research level
  • 5 = Comprehensive level
Language codes
  • E = English
    (English language predominates. Little or no foreign material in the collection)
  • P = French is the primary language
Other criteria
  • Chronological period covered
    o How old/current will material need to be
  • Level of writing or presentation
    o designated level to collect for
  • Authority of author/publisher
    o Are they highly respected in their field? Are they well known? Have they done their research?
  • Format
    o Print? Hardcover? Paperback?
  • Price
    o What is a reasonable price to pay? This is important.
  • Geographic areas
    o Schools, Canada based/slant
  • Demand/user need
    o Buy multiple copies for advance ordering, e.g. Oprah Winfrey’s Picks
  • Where does the responsibility lie?
    o Who is ultimately responsible?
    o Who has been delegated?
  • Position or title
    o Head librarian, no names mentioned
Method of selection
  • Individual?
  • Committee?
  • Centrally prepared list?
    o in schools
  • Guidelines
    o e.g. reviewing sources
    o make thoughtful decisions
Miscellaneous items
How do you handle the following items?
  • Gifts
  • Weeding or discards
  • Evaluation
  • Complaints and censorship
A library must have a policy regarding complaints and censorship.
  • Cooperative Development Programs
    Co-operate with network and other schools
  • Revision
    How often?
    Public input?
Sample collection development policies
York University
in depth
Vancouver Public Library
forward thinking
Portage la Prairie School Division
McGill University
similar to special library, very in depth

Vendor controlled plans

Vendor controlled plans are ways of getting timely orders and to learn about forthcoming materials.

Two methods of ordering
  • Order individual books title by title
  • Arrange with a vendor to receive certain categories of material automatically
    o Get materials that you know the library wants/need. Receive notification of new titles and decide if you want to
    o known as vendor-controlled order plan or
    o gathering plan
Types of gathering plans
  • Approval Plan
  • Blanket Order Plan
  • Standing Orders
  • Lease Plan
  • Greenaway Plan
    o Greenaway plans is a primarily American gathering plan type.
Approval plans
  • Conceptual agreement between a library and a vendor whereby the vendor agrees to supply the library with one copy of current imprints according to a predetermined profile.
    o Breakdown by subject(s) heading(s) and reading level(s)
  • Either books or selection slips shipped “on approval”
    o Books that are wanted or not wanted have to get shipped back and costs money. Directly linked to publisher.
Blanket plans
  • Arrangement with a publisher or vendor whereby the library commits to purchase one copy of everything sent, provided the materials match the terms of a formal agreement
    o Few libraries use this plan. Materials can only be returned if they are damaged.
  • Right of return is forfeited.
Standing orders
  • A type of order that is placed for the first part and all future parts of a title on a “till forbidden” basis
    o Buy all components of a series until decision to stop purchasing
  • No returns accepted
  • Exampleso Encyclopedias or dictionaries published in parts
    o All monographs of a numbered series
    o Annuals
    * Directories
    * Yearbooks
Lease plans
Lease plans are good for public libraries. They can rent book rather than owning it, and ship it back when they are finished with the book. However, they have to pay for any damage to the book. Lease plans meet a demand while it lasts and without committing money.
  • Plan whereby a library acquires a popular titles for recreational reading and then returns them when demand has decreased or purchases them at a greatly reduced cost
  • Annual fee required
  • McNaughton Books of Brodart an example
Greenaway plan
  • Library places a standing order with a publisher for one copy of each trade book to be delivered prior to publication
  • Each title is reviewed and multiple copies, if required, ordered in advance publication
  • If library does not buy multiple copies, the agreement is cancelled
Advantages of approval plans
  • Quick receipt
  • Purchase decision made with book in hand or detailed slip
  • Good discount
  • Bibliographic searching eliminated
  • Useful if selection/acquisitions staff limited
Disadvantages of approval plans
  • Vendors tend not to supply non-trade items
    o they only supply items from big companies
  • Materials often arrive before critical reviews are available
  • Only titles from the profile are sent
    o The profile is created by the library, therefore titles they order are sent
  • Vendors coverage of current publishing may have to be closely monitored
    o Libraries may not receive quantity ordered of popular titles
  • Libraries may accept marginal materials
  • Duplication of titles may occur
    o Double-check what titles are already on standing order
  • Staff time
    o Approval plans take time
Advantages of blanket order plans
  • More specific than approval plans
    o Deal with one dealer; there is no chance of duplication
  • Staff know not to place an individual order
  • Minimal profiling
    o Nothing can be returned
  • No returns to process
  • No selection slips to process
  • Good discounts
  • Systematic coverage of current publishing of interest to the library
  • Materials arrive quickly
    o No waiting
Disadvantages of blanket order plans
  • Library must accept everything vendor sends
  • Budgeting
    o Be aware of increased prices of material
  • Staff time
Buying around
The practice whereby libraries and bookstores purchase foreign materials directly from foreign publishers and wholesalers circumventing the Canadian publisher-agent that has negotiated an exclusive Canadian distribution rights agreement with a foreign publisher.
  • American is considered foreign, libraries should be buying Canadian
Issues of buying around
  • CLA Position Statement & Libraries came out in 1978
    o Service
    o Price
    o Availability
  • Distributors
    They feel that
    • Taxpayers money should be spent in Canada
    • Publisher-agents need extra cash flow to support homegrown publishing efforts
    • Cost of many goods, including books, higher in Canada
    • Books requested by libraries result of marketing and advertising done by Canadian agents
Buying around present state of affairs
  • Included in Part II of the Copyright Act
  • Voluntary guidelines set out by the Book and Periodical Council Task Force on Industry Guidelines (Feliciter, March 1996)
  • Book Importation Regulations SOR/99-324, 28 July 1999 published in Canada Gazette Part II, Vol. 133, No. 17
Some Internet sites for buying around

Monday, February 7, 2011

Yearbooks, handbooks, almanacs, manuals and news summaries

Yearbooks, handbooks, almanacs, manuals and news summaries are all reference sources that contain miscellaneous facts, and are used mainly to answer ready reference enquiries. These sources frequently duplicate information found elsewhere, but their arrangement facilitates speedy access to the information.

Although they vary in layout and content, most have the following points in common:

• Information is presented in abbreviated form, with an emphasis on statistical information.
• The arrangement reflects the specified purpose and intended use. It may be alphabetical, chronological or topical.
• They usually include extensive indexes.

A yearbook is an annual publication containing current information in brief descriptive and/or statistical form.

Yearbooks fit into the following types, based on their purpose:
• supplements to encyclopedias published once a year to update the main body of the encyclopedia
• summaries of recent developments in a subject area – e.g. Yearbook of technology and education
• yearbooks, including almanacs, which provide miscellaneous facts – e.g. Whitaker’s almanac
• those which contain information for a particular trade or profession – e.g. Bowker annual of library and book trade information
• those which contain statistical information relating to one or more countries – e.g. Statesman’s year-book. Most countries publish an official yearbook – e.g. Year book Australia. The tables of statistics often cover a longer time span than one year, and are useful for making comparisons.

A handbook is a concise ready reference source of information for a particular field of knowledge.

Handbooks, which treat broad subjects in a brief fashion, are a useful source of information on a field of knowledge such as science, or an occupational area such as librarianship. Examples include The law handbook and Handbook of occupational hygiene.

An almanac is an annual calendar with astronomical information and other data; a miscellany of useful facts and statistical information.

Almanacs compress a wealth of facts and figures, both current and retrospective, into one volume. Information is often presented in condensed form in lists or tables. The more detailed almanacs include citations to the original sources, and some may include longer, signed articles covering particularly newsworthy developments such as wars and elections. Examples include Whitaker’s almanac and Australian sports almanac.

Almanacs were originally calendars of months and days including special dates and anniversaries, forecasts of weather and astronomical calculations. They now include more miscellaneous facts, and cover similar subjects to yearbooks.

A manual is a book of instruction on doing, making or performing something.

Manuals give instructions, rules or procedures. They cover a wide range of subjects including first aid, car maintenance, how to run meetings, etc.

News summaries
News summaries are weekly or monthly looseleaf digests or news events, which are designed for storage in binders in chronological order. These summaries are updated and cumulated at regular intervals and include detailed indexes. Examples include Keesing’s record of world events and Facts on file.

Choose examples of yearbooks, handbooks, almanacs and manuals from the list below. Fill in the details for as many as you can locate (at least five). Photocopy the headings if you need additional space.

Book of Australia SBS world guide
Cambridge factfinder Statesman’s year-book
Europa world year book Style manual
Far East and Australasia Whitaker’s concise almanack
Parliamentary handbook Year book Australia


Place, publisher, date

Intended user group


Special features

Using sources you are familiar with suggest a type of yearbook, handbook, almanac or manual which is likely to provide the answers to the following questions – e.g. an Australian statistical yearbook. (You do not need to give the exact title or bibliographic details.)

1. How many people are employed as dental nurses in Australia?
Statistical source

2. When was Senator Margaret Reid, Senator for the ACT, first elected to the Senate?
Parliamentary source

3. What are the functions of the World Health Organisation?
Statistical yearbook

4. What is the currency used in Ghana?
Statistical yearbook

5. I am trying to find the date of the Australian federal election held in 1943.
Parliamentary source

6. What are the principal crops grown in Portugal?
Statistical yearbook

7. Where would I find some information on political organizations in Korea?
Statistical yearbook

8. When was the Rt Hon Sir Isaac Isaacs the Governor-General of Australia?
Parliamentary source

9. I need to find a listing of the most popular athletes in Australia.
Australian almanac

10. What is the address of the Bank of England in London?

11. What is the significance of the date April 23rd?

12. Who is the ruler of Saudi Arabia?
Statistical yearbook

13. Who is the Chairman of the British Tourist Authority?

14. What is the proportion of Australians born overseas?
Statistical source

15. Where would I find advice on how to use gender-inclusive language?
Style manual

16. Who was the King of England in 1770?

17. What are the principal towns in Malaysia?

18. Where would I find a list of the Seven Wonders of the World?

19. I want some statistics on births, marriages and deaths in Italy.
Statistical yearbook

20. What are the names of the main islands of Japan?

Find the answer to the following questions using yearbooks, handbooks, almanacs and manuals. Name the source and give its bibliographic details.

1. How many Australians travelled abroad in 1996?
Yearbook Australia no. 80, Canberra, Australia Bureau of Statistics, c1998, p. 591

2. Where is the headquarters of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) located?
Washington, D.C.
Statesman’s Yearbook 1998-1999, 135th ed., London, Macmillan, 1998, p. 27

3. What are the principal crops grown in Singapore?
plants, vegetables, orchid flowers
Europa World Yearbook 1997, 38th ed., London, Europa Publications, c1997, vol. 11, p. 2897.

4. Where would I find information on the history of Tonga?
Far East and Australasia 1996, 27th ed., London, Europa Publications, 1996, p. 842.

5. Is Kakadu National Park a World Heritage site?
The Cambridge Factfinder, 3rd ed., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p.44.

6. How many kilometers of road are there in Malta?
SBS World Guide, 6th ed., South Yarra, Vic., Ausinfo, c1998, p. 488.

7. What is the address of the Indonesia Tourist Promotion Board?
Bank Pacific Building, 4th floor, Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jakarta
Far East and Australasia 1996, 27th ed., London, Europa Publications. 1996, p.404.

8. When should I use an apostrophe when writing a report?
Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 5th ed., Canberra, AGPS, 1994, p. 98.

9. What percentage of Australians were overweight in 1995-96?
Yearbook Australia no. 80, Canberra, Australia Bureau of Statistics, c1998, p. 286.

10. Where would I find a list of the world’s longest bridges?
The Cambridge Fact Finder, 3rd ed., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 586.

11. What minerals are produced in Ethiopia?
Gold, cement and soil
Statesman’s Yearbook 1998-1999, 135th ed., London, Macmillan, 1998, p. 523.

12. Where would I find some information on the Western Christian calendar?
Whittaker’s Concise Almanack 1998, London, The Stationary Office, 1997, pp. 82-84.

13. When were the Australian Country Music Awards first presented
January 1973.
The book of Australia 1997-98, Rev. Ed., Balmain, N.S.W., The Watermark Press, 1997, p.520.

14. Which countries belong to the Nordic Council of Ministers?
Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
Europa World Book 1997, 38th ed., London, Europa Publications, c1997, vol. 1, p.193.

15. Where would I find a list of symbols used when proofreading a manuscript?
Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 5th ed., Canberra, AGPS, 1994, pp. 312-315.

16. Who is the President of Guatemala?
Alvaro Enrique Arzu Irigoyen
Europa World Book 1997, 38th ed., London, Europa Publications, c1997, vol. 1, p.1493.

17. I want some information on the Port of London Authority.
Whitaker’s concise almanack 1998, London, The Stationary Office, 1997, p.333

18. What are the floral emblems for the states of Australia?
The book of Australia 1997-98, Rev. ed., Balmain, N.S.W., The Watermark Press, 1997, p. 94.

19. What languages are spoken in Tajikistan?
Russian, Tajik
SBS World Guide, 6th ed., South Yarra, Vic., Ausinfo, c1998, p.729

20. Please find a list of the Leaders of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament since 1901.
Parliamentary handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia, 26th ed., Canberra, AGPS, 1993, p. 452.